# Draw A Transverse Wave On The Axes Below

28 which gives about 220 m/s, 20 times too slow for steel. Mark off on the paper the positions of 3 or 4 R wave tips Move the paper along the rhythm strip so that your first mark lines up with another R wave tip See if the subsequent R wave tips line up with the subsequent marks on your paper If they do line up, the rhythm is regular. Frequency is the number of complete wave cycles that happen each second. The string has length ℓ. A wave pulse is made to travel along the rod and reflect from end N. (a) Write the equation for a transverse sinusoidal wave with a maximum amplitude of 2. Transverse Wave is a wave that oscillates perpendicular to the axis along which the wave travel or a transverse wave is a wave in which vibrating element moves in a direction perpendicular to the. A wave = a moving disturbance. Then place the wave plate between polarizer and analyzer and rotate it in order to reach minimum light transmission without rotating the analyzer or the polarizer. Draw a similar diagram, on the axes below, to show an amplitude modulated radio 10. ball #5 will be at the crest so that the crest would have moved from ball 4 to ball 5. (b) Notice that as the wave passes any fixed point on the x–axis the string at that location oscillates in time. - Frames may be attached to the floors (Frame would be the part above the floor) Starting from the keel to the deck:. The second type of second order linear partial differential equations in 2 independent variables is the one-dimensional wave equation. C2, the second cervical vertebra, around whose odontoid process the atlas rotates. The graph shows the variation of displacement of the particles with distance along a stationary transverse wave at time t = 0 when the displacement of the particles is greatest. CNTK 106: Part A - Time series prediction with LSTM (Basics)¶ This tutorial demonstrates how to use CNTK to predict future values in a time series using LSTMs. Waves can also be classified as transverse and longitudinal. As the wave travels in one direction - say south - it is creating an up-and-down (not north-and-south) motion on the water's surface. The longitudinal ( u ), transverse ( v ), and vertical ( w ) wind components correspond to the x , y , and z directions, respectively. a transverse wave because each point on the string moves perpendicular to the motion of the wave (up/down while wave moves right) how do waves move an external force creates a pulse, but once started, the pulse continues to move because of the internal dynamics of the medium. The inner belt extends from roughly 600 miles to 3,700 miles, that is, from 1,000 km to 6,000 km above the earth's surface. All the waves move along the spring at a speed of 6. It will generate the third panel that shows the spectrogram (i. 5 cm and an angular frequency of 2. Transverse wave A wave in which the motion of the molecules of the medium is perpendicular to the direction of the wave. The process by which the eye changes its 'focus' is called_____. 0 inch, and (ii) a transverse dimension of 0. In the simulation below we have convex and concave lenses where the sides of the glass are not parallel (except near the center). x-axis y-axis MECHANICAL TRANSVERSE WAVE (SPACE). Define these terms. If the crystal T 1 is rotated with the incident light direction as axis from 0 to 360°, the transmitted light will show no variation in. When locating an earthquakes epicenter seismologists take the first reading of the P wave, and then. (d) Next, draw a wave differing from the one in your diagram (a) just by having a wavelength 1. The experience is easy, fast, and I would recommend. The figure shows the string at time. Then place the wave plate between polarizer and analyzer and rotate it in order to reach minimum light transmission without rotating the analyzer or the polarizer. Fourth Axis World In 1915, Albert Einstein first proposed his theory of special relativity. The mean QRS axis is obtained from measurements of the heights of the QRS waves in the 3 leads. a) Label the nodes and antinodes shown in the standing wave below using the letter "N" for node and "A" for antinode. Use different pens/pencils to represent the different waves (label them). There are three modes - one longitudinal and two transverse, which represent straight lines whose slopes are equal to the respective velocities of sound. The figure shows a standing wave on a string. (d) Next, draw a wave differing from the one in your diagram (a) just by having a wavelength 1. Physics 305 Homework Problems Page 1 Waves and Wavefunctions Homework Set 1 1) The figure below represents the profile (t = 0 s) of a transverse wave on a string traveling in the positive x–direction at a speed of 100 cm/s. The surface waves (Love and Rayleigh waves) are the other, often larger, waves marked on the seismogram. as one of two basic types, transverse or longitudinal. Define the terms “Frequency” & “Period” as they relate to waves. A transverse wave can be created in a rope if the rope is stretched out horizontally and the end is vibrated back-and-forth in a vertical direction. DefinitionEdit. 5 , the particle will have a helical. Analog and Digital - Analog. \eqref{11} is called linear wave equation which gives total description of wave motion. 2D waves using circles A while ago I saw this nice animation (not sure what is the original source, but it can be found in different places on the web) demonstrating a propagation of what seems like a compression wave composed only from the rotation of black dots on closely placed circles, creating the illusion of a wave form with an amplitude perpendicular to the direction of motion (a. This question is in two parts. Note that the water particles move approximately up and down at one location. In the following diagram two transverse sections are shown at a distance apart and the Shearing forces will be and whilst the Bending Moments are and. The slower transverse waves, called S waves (with ÒSÓ standing for secondar y), travel through the Earth at 4 to 5 km/s near the sur face. Now move your hand back and forth continuously to generate a continuous transverse wave. If the first person then shakes his end up and down or from side to side, a transverse wave will travel along the spring. (2 marks) (iii) What is the length of the string? (2 marks). The wave equation is to be in the form of y = ym cos(kx + ωt + φ). There are two transverse modes because there are two orthogonal directions perpendicular to propagation. Just considering electromagnetic waves, we note that the preceding discussion strictly applies to plane waves in a homogeneous isotropic non-attenuating medium, whereas in an anisotropic medium (such as birefringent crystals as discussed below) the electric or magnetic field may have longitudinal as well as transverse components. Being a course of Christmas lectures delivered at the Royal institution of Great Britain" See other formats. There are two major branches of optics, physical and geometrical. A student generates a series of transverse waves of varying frequency by shaking one end of a loose spring. The wave velocity is the speed at which the disturbance moves. In general, a system with more than one natural frequency will not vibrate harmonically. Both effects are inevitable for any real beam, but can be reduced by enlarging the spot size at the focal point. 83) All leads half standard (Note that the box at the start of each. As per latest CBSE exam pattern, you will get five questions of. This gives rise to much interesting physics. Focused US pulses are used to generate a transverse wave (shear wave) at specific depths within the liver, as selected by the operator. Draw a similar diagram, on the axes below, to show an amplitude modulated radio 10. The following calculation allows you to specify any two of the quantities in the wave relationship v = f l and then initiate the calculation by clicking on the. 15-1 15 TRAVELING WAVES AND SOUND Q15. The pair of rows contains two kinds of modes, with varying axial wave number and transverse wave number equal to 1. The input light is polarized at 45˚ to the z and y′ axes for intensity modulation. Wave interference is the phenomenon that occurs when two waves meet while traveling along the same medium. The standard wave we see at the baseball game could be considered a transverse wave because the people are moving perpendicular to the direction of the wave. Let's call. (See Figure) For a transverse wave the disturbance direction is perpendicular to the propagation direction. At any particular point along the wave, all the particles are either moving forwards or backwards, or changing their direction. 8 to help you. It’s still black magic, since one has to know the solution to find it, but very very cool. The drawing below gives the location of the focal points of a double hyperbola as well as a point P on the curve. The figure represents the waves as plane waves which is not, strictly speaking, accurate, because of the finite extent of the vibrating tines; however, it is certainly more accurate than representing them as spherical waves which would be the case if the inverse square law applied. transverse longitudinal (1) 5 (b) Give one example of the type of wave that can be polarized. parameters of the bunch are given below (Table 1). transverse wave: Any wave in which the direction of disturbance is perpendicular to the direction of travel. Count over 3 spaces from each crest reference point and place a dot 4 spaced below the x axis. Note the above diagram is plotted against time. 25 A transverse wave, such as an electromagnetic light wave, as viewed from above and from the side. The wave equations are also valid below the cutoff frequency, where the longitudinal wave number is imaginary. It should be in the set of choices you have been given. The slower transverse waves, called S waves (with ÒSÓ standing for secondar y), travel through the Earth at 4 to 5 km/s near the sur face. Polarization is a property of one type of wave. This question is in two parts. The amplitude y m can be defined because this wave is symmetric about the x axis. The standing wave has wavelength λ = 0. · S-Waves (S stands for secondary or shear or shake). Draw a solid line that represents someone walking 3. Each part of the string moves up and down while the wave moves from side to side. The difference between transverse and longitudinal waves is the direction the medium of the wave moves in relation to the direction of wave propagation. In addition to amplitude, frequency, and period, their wavelength and wave velocity also characterize waves. A wave = a moving disturbance. 010 s, labelling this graph B,. A wave may be a combination of types. On the left axes below, draw a snapshot graph D(y, t = 0 s) along the y-axis at t = 0 s. 24 The drawing shows two graphs that represent a transverse wave on a string. But when the reverse thing happens then it is termed as Transverse Magnetic (TM) mode. The pulses have the same shape, except for their orientation. The general equation for a wave is given by y(x;t) = y. There are two major branches of optics, physical and geometrical. If polarised light is reaching the obsewer, draw the direction of the transmission axis on. NuSTAR is a NASA-funded SMEX (Small Explorer) mission that carries the first focusing hard X-ray (5 - 80 keV) telescope to orbit. Two major classes of waves are and transverse. The animations below demonstrate both types of wave and illustrate the difference between the motion of the wave and the motion of the particles in the medium through which. I may not understand your question, but imagine this way to make a sine wave. Now let's take y = A sin (kx − ωt) and make the dependence on x and t explicit by plotting y(x,t) where t is a separate axis, perpendicular to x and y. 7) for a sinusoidal wave can be made more general b. Using Figure 7. (3) The diagram below shows three wavefronts incident on a boundary between medium I and medium R. The input light is polarized at 45˚ to the z and y′ axes for intensity modulation. The demonstrator starts to move both hands at the same time and in the same direction. Amplitude7. The scale of the vertical axis is set by ys = 8. To con gure what is being plotted on each axis, click the axis label, which is the but-ton that says to bring up the drop down menu. The wave velocity is determined by the properties of the medium and is independent of the other parameters, but it can be determined from measurements of the frequency and wavelength. Again, sketch what you see from an overhead view of the slinky. (a) What is the wave which travels along the rope called? Explain. This is shown as a shaded region in the figure above. Draw a graph of y versus t showing how a point on the rope at x = 0 oscillates. mar y) because they travel faster than the transverse waves and arrive at a seismograph (a device used to detect waves due to earthquakes) Þrst. Please go to the following applet and examine the transverse and longitudinal waves. The pulse on the left is traveling to the right at 100 cm/s; the pulse on the right is traveling to the left at 100 cm/s. motion of the wave is horizontal; that is, the oscillations of the water are. 0 cm) cos (0. Usually, transverse wave probes are used in angle beam testing. Its space-variant local optical axes are a combination of the two geometric phase lenses axes, as depicted in Figure 2a−c. 3 Graphical and Mathematical Descriptions of Waves 15-3 6. Or more specifically, light isn't a "transverse wave in the Aether," instead light is a wave in magnetic and electric fields where the field vectors point sideways. The maximum deviation at any point of time of the wave is called amplitude. Draw two waves that will meet and destructively. 0 cm and a wavelength of 5. They are the x-, y-, and z-axes. This question is about waves and wave properties. (2) (b) (i) Sound is a longitudinal wave. 97 measured the major (length) and minor (height) axes of the equivalent ellipsoid for each void detected via micro-CT. Is the wave transverse or. Longitudinal field components and related transverse optical spin of the surface and guided modes also lead to an inverse photonic spin-Hall effect, which is impossible for transverse waves 30. Ans: A revolving electron in an orbit of radius r moving with velocity v behaves as a current loop of effective current I = e ( is frequency of revolution) 2 ve I r. The transducer is positioned on the midline of the patient's back in the transverse plane, perpendicular to the long axis of the lumbar spine (Figure 1). Calculate the speed of the sound wave d. A toroid core puts out a transverse wave but it does not propagate away from the core at least not far, only as high as the field strength Half of the Answer is knowing the right Question Last edited by Dave45; 05-14-2012 at 03:05 PM. Waves located on the ocean’s surface are commonly caused by wind transferring its energy to the water, and big waves, or swells, can travel over long distances. 15-4 CHAPTER 15 Traveling Waves and Sound 8. The highest parts of the wave are called crests, and the lowest parts are called troughs. A transverse wave on a string is modeled with the wave function. 3 (b) (ii) State one difference between a transverse wave and a longitudinal wave (1 mark) 3 (c) Figure 3 shows two identical polarising filters, A and B, and an unpolarised light source. Examples: light, string waves, water waves (sort of). 23 Consider the pulse described in terms of its displacement at t = 0 by y(x, — where C is a constant. This question is in two parts. When a polaroid is placed in between the path of the light, the electric vectors which are parallel to the pass-axis of the polaroid pass through it. Now move your hand back and forth continuously to generate a continuous transverse wave. If we add these two waves together, point-by-point, we end up with a new wave that looks pretty much like the original waves but its amplitude is larger. The longitudinal and transverse wave. Transverse waves on a string David Morin,

[email protected] Answer this question on the diagram shown. A sound insulation structure for a garment is disclosed. Below that, you will see the σ g 1s orbital. 02 s (cm) At x 0 cm At t = 100 cm/s x (cm) 2 cm 0. a rate of 60 to 100 beats per minute. Online physics tutorials in India. This is the standard reference point for the short axis, indicating the mid portion of the left ventricle, where dimension measurements are made. asked by nishant on October 30, 2014; Science. x-axis y-axis MECHANICAL TRANSVERSE WAVE (SPACE). If a transverse wave encounters a. This is one characteristic the graph is showing. State one difference between a transverse wave and a longitudinal wave. They can travel through vaccum. - 1147592. Table 1: Beam Parameters Parameters Value Electron beam energy (MeV) 2 Transverse beam size (mm) 0. 15-1 15 TRAVELING WAVES AND SOUND Q15. On the axes below, draw a graph to show the variation with distance x along the water surface of the displacement d of the water surface at time t = 0. transverse wave: Any wave in which the direction of disturbance is perpendicular to the direction of travel. Sound is often described as a pressure wave. (2 points) b) Write down an equation describing how many wavelengths the tube contains. Free for commercial use No attribution required High quality images. Now when total field lies in the transverse plane, Transverse electromagnetic (TEM) waves exist where both Ez and Hz are zero. You do not need to label your axes. If the first person then shakes his end up and down or from side to side, a transverse wave will travel along the spring. · S-Waves (S stands for secondary or shear or shake). • Transverse waves have a polarization From now on just draw E and remember that B is still there: An EM wave polarized along the y-axis, is incident on two. This susceptibility to dimensional change is one of the few wood properties that exhibit signifi cant differences for the three orthotropic axes. 38°W from the R/V Kilo Moana. The drawing below gives the location of the focal points of a double hyperbola as well as a point P on the curve. An ellipse is obtained when the cutting plane cuts all elements of the upper or lower cone. Draw the standing wave if the frequency is changed to and to if. This is true for guitar strings and for both closed-end and open-end resonance tubes. The arrows indicate the plane in which the electric field of the wave oscillates. Water waves are transverse. Using the app, lets try to create data sets that can exhibit some of the traits that are used to describe different waves. (1 mark) Figure 3 shows two identical polarising filters, A and B, and an unpolarised light source. A transverse wave may travel through a medium, such as secondary waves (s-waves) in an earthquake, or without a medium, such as light through a vacuum. If the arrows show the direction of motion of the particles, then you must compare this to particle displacement, not wave displacement. Draw the wave profile. Light can be linearly polarized using polarizing film or filters in such a way, as shown below, that only the waves vibrating along the axis of the filter will get through. Its left and right hand ends are held ﬁxed at height zero and we are told its initial conﬁguration and speed. Define these terms. Label 1 diagram as longitudinal and the other as transverse Cods left left up Cods up 30. Just like the figure below, when two loudspeakers propagate sound waves from two locations to any other locations. make some material substance move as they go by. On the diagram above (iv) draw the displacement of the string a time T4 later, where T is the period of oscillation of the wave. 02 s x (cm) 0 cm. (2 marks) (iii) What is the length of the string? (2 marks). Plane waves are TEM, however, we are more interested in what types of transmission lines can support TEM. Water waves in deep water are mainly transverse. verse waves, but a homogeneous fluid can transport only longitudinal waves. That is, each axis cuts the other into two equal parts, and each axis crosses the other at right angles. 15-1 15 TRAVELING WAVES AND SOUND Q15. The wavelength is the distance between any two adjacent points which are in phase. 25 A transverse wave, such as an electromagnetic light wave, as viewed from above and from the side. NuSTAR (Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array) Spacecraft Launch Mission Status Sensor Complement Ground Segment References. The wave pulse is produced by hitting end M gently with a hammer so that the hammer remains in contact with end M until the reflected pulse returns. See also atlas. We can think of these as having the shape of sine waves. This susceptibility to dimensional change is one of the few wood properties that exhibit signifi cant differences for the three orthotropic axes. 18, where the nonadiabacity of the spin transfer torque was considered as an additional torque term within the LLG equation, we can draw a simple relation for our case, where the spin Hall torque is considered instead of a non-. Important Questions and Answers from other selected units 1. Light can be linearly polarized using polarizing film or filters in such a way, as shown below, that only the waves vibrating along the axis of the filter will get through. The typical ECG, representing the normal cardiac rhythm, consists of B. In the case of wave propagation no particle of medium displaces permanently from their mean position and they just vibrate about their mean position. * For the wave pulses shown below, (a) draw the pulses before they meet, (b) draw the. These are the wave fronts of a circular wave. The formation of modes in a planer dielectric guide and the interference of plane waves are shown in figure4. Note that the water particles move approximately up and down at one location. To con gure what is being plotted on each axis, click the axis label, which is the but-ton that says to bring up the drop down menu. Coronal waves are an important aspect of the dynamics of the plasma in the corona. (b) Notice that as the wave passes any fixed point on the x-axis the string at that location oscillates in time. A wave of depolarisation travelling at a right angle to a positive electrode results in a biphasic deflection on the trace. The axes of symmetry or principal axes are the transverse axis (containing the segment of length 2a with endpoints at the vertices) and the conjugate axis (containing the segment of length 2b perpendicular to the transverse axis and with midpoint at the hyperbola's center). Phase space distributions can take on many forms, but here we’ll examine the particles as points in a 2D space in which the axes are transverse position and velocity. A transverse wave has its oscillation (pulse) perpendicular to the direction the wave moves. The intellectual property rights and the responsibility for accuracy reside wholly with the author, Dr. Examples: light, string waves, water waves (sort of). Label the crests, troughs, wavelength, amplitude on the wave you drew above. _____ [1] c) A ruler may appear to be bent when partly immersed in water. The wave equations are also valid below the cutoff frequency, where the longitudinal wave number is imaginary. I tried finding a mathematical function to describe the vibrating spring, which is quite simple in the transverse case but I can't find a suitable function for the. Chapter 9: Electromagnetic Waves 9. This transverse plane has infinite planes of symmetry and thus, within this plane, the material properties are the same in all directions. Again, sketch what you see from an overhead view of the slinky. a) Draw a snapshot graph of the wave at t=0s. In contrast, in a transverse wave, the displacement of the medium is perpendicular to the direction in which the wave propagates. The displacement y of the string particle at x = 0 is given in the figure below as a function of time t. Draw a speaker at each end on the line below with a mode 2 standing sound wave of length 10. The technique can be used to add a wave pattern or vibration to an image at any angle. A longitudinal wave’s particles vibrate along the same line as the direction of the wave. S waves (also called secondary waves) are transverse (or shear) waves, meaning that the ground moves perpendicularly to the direction of travel. How to Determine the Heart Axis Advertising Determining the heart axis is one of the most difficult steps on an electrocardiogram analysis , but we hope that it will become a much easier task for you, after reading this page. Make a small vertical mark on your paper where each contour line meets it. Show below, with an arrow, the direction you vibrate a slinky to produce a transverse wave ___ 5)Make a standing wave again. It’s still black magic, since one has to know the solution to find it, but very very cool. Part 2 is about the possibility of generating electrical power using a satellite orbiting the Earth. (b) Draw the asymptotes to the curve. • Draw a second parallel line that is 1 cm inferior to it & mark off points that are 2, 4, & 6 cm from mastoid process, which correspond to C2, C3, & C4 transverse processes • At each point insert block needle at a slightly caudal angle until transverse process is met. (b) Find the position in the y-direction, the velocity perpendicular to the motion of the wave, and the acceleration perpendicular to the motion of the wave, of a small segment of the string centered at. A toroid core puts out a transverse wave but it does not propagate away from the core at least not far, only as high as the field strength Half of the Answer is knowing the right Question Last edited by Dave45; 05-14-2012 at 03:05 PM. 1 to 1, as shown in Fig. 4 WAVE CHARACTERISTICS 4. center – The midpoint of a diameter (or transverse side) of an ellipse, hyperbola, or opposite sections is the center. asked by nishant on October 30, 2014; Science. (b) Notice that as the wave passes any fixed point on the x-axis the string at that location oscillates in time. X Axis = Time (seconds) Y Axis = Pressure (Notice the zero point and the measure. The dotted line shows the position of the string when there is no wave travelling along it. A wave with longer wavelength b. (d) Draw a best-fit line on your graph. a) Label the nodes and antinodes shown in the standing wave below using the letter "N" for node and "A" for antinode. For a basic simulation, with up to four harmonics, draw below each wave form and the summary wave form. Draw the vibration pattern for the lowest two standing sound waves, in transverse representation. Although relatively uncommon (1% of all ectopic pregnancies), cervical pregnancy may result in massive hemorrhage. 7 (i) Plot a graph of Angle r (°) on the y-axis against Angle i (°) on the x-axis. In the next lesson, we will investigate waves. In the longitudinal direc. And draw the new wave. Name: Period: Waves-Wave Characteristics APlusPhysics: Waves-Wave Characteristics Page 2 WAV. Select one waveguide (it is selected by default in this sample) and click Find. See also axis of rib motion and bucket handle rib motion. CONCLUSION: Light, if it is wavelike, behaves like a transverse wave. 1 Introduction Chapter 9 treats the propagation of plane waves in vacuum and simple media, at planar boundaries, and in combinations confined between sets of planar boundaries, as in waveguides or cavity resonators. 02 s x (cm) 0 cm.

[email protected] 80m 110rad s)( )31. (d) Next, draw a wave differing from the one in your diagram (a) just by having a wavelength 1. 2 One-Dimensional Waves Slide 11 Our previous example of a wave on a string represented a transverse wave. m is the maximum amplitude of oscillation, kis the wave number, and !is the angular frequency. If you are given information about how fast P-waves and S-waves each travel, a certain lag time will correspond to a certain distance that may be traveled by earthquake waves. Transverse waves ‘Transverse waves’ behave differently: the disturbance of each particle is perpendicular to the wave motion. The main constituents of the belts are believed to come from solar wind and cosmic rays. (i)€€€€€ If polarised light is reaching the observer, draw the direction of the transmission axis on filter B in the figure below. interference of waves. 0 meters per second. Next create two axes below the snapshot with a horizontal axis showing direction of movement and a vertical axis showing high to low pressure. that Love waves travel faster than Rayleigh waves. Using Figure 7. 00 × 10 14 hertz is represented below. fixation axis The line joining the object of regard to the centre of rotation of the eye. Sketch in a wave having both a smaller amplitude and the same wavelength as the given wave. Example: A wave traveling in the positive x direction has a frequency of 25. Wave polarization occurs for vector fields. 7: To solve the 3D transverse mode, click the 3D Transverse tab. Draw a transverse wave on the axes below. The focus is in the ground below the epicenter on the surface. In Chapter 34, we learned that electromagnetic waves are transverse. I could use static images and import as graphics, but I want to do it with something like Tikz, so as to not need to carry around files with the LaTeX source. (A) the fin system comprises a fin, for example a generally laminar fin, which rotates about an axis of rotation (e. 97 measured the major (length) and minor (height) axes of the equivalent ellipsoid for each void detected via micro-CT. From a similar approach used in Ref. 80m k − π π == = λ (b) The speed of the wave is (1. The arrows on each oscillator shows the direction in which it is moving as the "wave" moves to the right ex. 1 Waves at planar boundaries at normal incidence 9. If the people bump shoulders instead of standing up, this would be a longitudinal wave. Write an expression for the wave, having a speed v in the negative x-direction, as a function of time t. In this article, we are going to compare transverse wave with longitudinal wave, and discuss their definitions, similarities and finally their differences. Picture yourself creating a transverse slinky wave. [5] (ii) Find the angle of refraction when the angle of incidence is 10°. PICTURE: superposition of two waves with moving along the x-axis in the positive direction, and in the negative x direction. Describe two uses for convex and concave lenses. It is usually referred as the cut made between left and right. Part 2 is about the possibility of generating electrical power using a satellite orbiting the Earth. The "disturbance" can be an alternating electromagnetic field strength (light), a variation in water height (ocean waves), a variation in material density (sound waves), or a distortion of the shape of the ground (seismic waves). It's now moving along a perpendicular axis, or you could call this a transverse wave. Use different pens/pencils to represent the different waves (label them). The superposition principle predicts what will happen when two waves interfere with each other: when two waves are on top of each other.